1830-1915, Painter, born in London, England, UK. He trained at the Royal Academy Schools, London. During the
1850s he produced several paintings that rank as some of the finest works executed in the precise and richly coloured style of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. He also, from c.1855, pursued a successful career as an illustrator of the works of Christina Rossetti, among others.
Hughes, Charles Evans
1862-1948, American jurist and statesman; b. Glens Falls, N.Y.; LL.B., Columbia Univ. (1884). After presiding over the enactment of much progressive legislation as governor of New York (1907-10), he was appointed (1910) associate justice of the U.S. SUPREME COURT. He resigned in 1916 to run for president, but he was narrowly defeated by Woodrow Wilson. As U.S. secretary of state (1921-25), he greatly increased U.S. diplomatic prestige. In 1930 he was appointed 11th chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, serving
until 1941; he was moderately conservative, although he frequently voted to uphold controversial NEW DEAL legislation.
Hughes, David (Edward)
1831-1900, Inventor, born in London, England, UK. He was brought up in Virginia and became professor of music at Bardston College, Kentucky (1850--3). In 1855 he invented a telegraph typewriter which was widely used throughout the USA and Europe, even up to the 1930s, and in 1878 a carbon microphone, important for telephony, and the precursor of modern carbon microphones. He left a large fortune to London hospitals.
Hughes, Harold E.
1922- Governor; born in Ida Grove, Iowa. An army veteran of World War II, he served on the Iowa Commission of Commerce (1946--58). As Democratic governor of Iowa (1963--69), he increased school funding, established a Civil Rights Commission, and strengthened consumer protection programs. Resigning to go to the U.S. Senate (1969--75), he dropped out of politics because of his problems with alcohol; he later opened the Hughes Centers for Alcoholism and Drug Treatment.
Hughes, Howard Robard
1905-76, U.S. business executive; b. Houston. At 20 he inherited patent rights to an oil tool drill that,
manufactured by the Hughes Tool Co., formed the basis of his financial empire. A pilot, he set several aviation
records and in the 1930s formed the Hughes Aircraft Corp. His interests extended to the motion picture industry, and he produced such films as Hell's Angels (1930) and The Front Page (1931). He later gained control of RKO Studios and of Trans World Airways (TWA). In 1953 he established the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, now one of the wealthiest philanthropies, to conduct medical research. A billionaire, he became a recluse in his later years.
Hughes, John (Joseph)
1797-1864, Catholic prelate; born in County Tyrone, Ireland. Emigrating to the U.S.A. in 1817 and ordained in 1826, he did pastoral work in Philadelphia, and after becoming coadjutor bishop of New York (1838), succeeded four years later to the see, which was made an archdiocese in 1850. He founded St. John's (now Fordham) College (1841), set up an ambitious parochial school system, helped found the American College in Rome, and began construction of St. Patrick's Cathedral (1858). In 1861 he went on a mission to France seeking friendship for the North in the Civil War. He is now recognized as having played a crucial role in both securing Catholics' rights in the U.S.A. and in helping Catholics become integrated into American society.
Hughes, Langston (James Mercer)
1902-67, African-American poet; b. Joplin, Mo. A major figure in the HARLEM RENAISSANCE, he depicted urban African-American life. His collections of verse include The Weary Blues (1926) and One-Way Ticket (1949). Among his other works are plays, children's books, and novels.
Hughes, Richard (Joseph)
1909 -- 1992, Governor, judge; born in Florence, N.J. A lawyer, he served as a New Jersey county and superior
court judge before opening his own practice in 1957. As Democratic governor (1962--70), he fought unsuccessfully for a state income tax to improve the education system. As New Jersey Supreme Court chief justice (1974--79), he presided over the historic case that allowed Karen Ann Quinlan's parents to terminate her life-support system.
Hughes, Robert (Studley Forrest)
1938- , Art critic and writer, born in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. He studied at the University of
Sydney, decided to become an art critic rather than an artist, and was art critic of the Sydney Observer (1958--9) and Nation (1960--4). Since 1970 he has been senior art critic for Time magazine. He was awarded the Frank Jewett Mather Award for Distinguished Art Criticism in 1982 and 1985. He has written many important books on a wide range of subjects, including The Art of Australia (1966) and The Shock of the New (1980) - a guide to 20th-c art based on the BBC television series. Later works include The Fatal Shore (1987), a history
of convict transportation to Australia, and The Culture Complaint (1993), a polemical discussion about "political correctness' in the USA.
1930-, English poet, Poet Laureate of England (1984-). He attempts in tightly controlled verse to bring order
out of violence and passion. His works include The Hawk in the Rain (1957), Crow: From the Life and Songs of the Crow (1971), Moortown (1980), and Wolfwatching (1989). He was married to Sylvia PLATH.
1822-96, English author. His novel of school life, Tom Brown's School Days (1857), is a classic, idealizing Dr.
Thomas Arnold, headmaster of Rugby school.
Hughes, Vernon W. (Willard)
1921- , Physicist; born in Kankakee, Ill. He taught at Columbia University (1949--52) and the University of Pennsylvania (1952--54) before joining Yale (1954). He made significant contributions to radiofrequency and spectroscopy of atoms and molecules, and to studies of particle physics.
Hughes, William Morris
1864-1952, Australian statesman; b. England. He was minister for external affairs (1904) in the first Labour
government and was later attorney general (1908-9, 1910-13, 1914-21). As prime minister (1915-23) of Australia, he strongly supported Britain in WORLD WAR I.